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CopyProfile on Windows 10 has typically been creating more problems than it really solves, which probably explains why (if memory serves) the TechNet documentation for that setting mentions that it's been deprecated or isn't recommended or something. When I've used it on recent builds, I've encountered problems ranging from the Quick Access shortcuts being broken because they point to the Administrator profile, Windows Search not working at all, some Modern apps failing to start, etc. There are threads over on MS where users have shared lists of files/folders that should be deleted from the Administrator profile prior to capturing the image so they're not copied over, but those are workarounds at best, and likely not complete ones. It's clearly not something Microsoft is supporting anymore, which is hugely disappointing. At least they provided a separate way to export the Start menu layout to the default user template, but that's by no means a full replacement.
The SID is definitely one thing that gets handled by sysprep, although as you say, the ramifications of duplicate SIDs even in systems that ARE joined to a domain is actually contested. But another key aspect that sysprep takes care of is Windows licensing. I was helping a customer that had a batch of identically configured PCs. One had a hardware failure, so I transplanted that system's drive into another system whose data wasn't needed at the time. Since it was identical hardware, it booted just fine as you would expect, but the Windows installation fell out of activation and then would not reactivate, even though the new system had already claimed its own digital license for the same edition of Windows 10. I even ran the troubleshooting tool and it literally said, "We found a digital license for this PC, but to activate with it, you need to reinstall Windows," or something like that. It would not use the PC's digital license to reactivate the existing installation in-place -- nice, right? So you might encounter that type of issue if you try to replicate a non-sysprepped image. Alternatively, you can try to make sure that the golden image never activates before you capture it, which may work around it, but that can be tricky if you can't keep the golden image off the network the entire time you're building it, and probably impossible if the system you're building with has a Windows license embedded into its firmware.
Anyway, it's a completely fair point that someone just trying to migrate from one PC to another would not have sysprepped their image and could therefore run into your situation. I wonder if there's a ReDeploy log file that gets generated that might help determine underlying cause? Hopefully Macrium will assist here.