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You can’t run a clone to a network location because cloning requires direct access to the target in order to perform block-level writes, and the protocols used for network sharing abstract the underlying hardware from network clients and only expose a file system, which means only file-level writes are possible. Your best bet is to simply perform image backups to some location (external hard drive connected to SP4, desktop PC if it has enough storage, etc.), and if your SP4's internal SSD ever fails, install the replacement internally, boot the SP4 from Rescue Media, and restore that image onto the new SSD. Of course this renders the PCIe SSD adapter unnecessary unless you have some other use for that SSD in the meantime, and if not, technically it even renders the replacement SSD itself unnecessary at this point. It might have been worth waiting to purchase that until it was needed since by the time the SP4's SSD fails (if it even does while you own it), you would be able to get a faster/larger SSD for your cash at that point, or a given SSD at a lower price.
For what it's worth, image backups have a number of advantages over clones anyway. The main advantages of a clone are that it allows you to more quickly get back up and running and that it alleviates the need to have some other storage location to host the images (since with image backups, that location can't be the source or the eventual target in a restore scenario), but if your SP4's SSD ever failed, you'd have your work cut out for you replacing it anyway, so the time impact of having to perform an image restore rather than simply having a cloned SSD ready to go would be relatively minimal overall.