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Never done it, but it appears an exFAT can be resized to fill available free space. However, it requires a 3rd party partitioning program and there are a number of free ones available.
EDIT: You may be able to use Windows Disk Management to do the job.
I would restore your image of the SD card and after ensuring it did copy your files as intended, I'd start up one of the partitioning tools and try it. If you prefer, you could set up the larger card with a small partition and then see if you can extend it - saving the time and effort of doing the restore first.